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        Endoscope is a testing instrument which integrates traditional optics, ergonomics, precision machinery, modern electronics, mathematics and software. One has image sensor, optical lens, light source illumination, mechanical device, etc. it can enter the stomach through the mouth or enter the body through other natural channels. Endoscopy can be used to see lesions that cannot be shown by X-ray, so it is very useful for doctors. For example, with the help of endoscopy, the doctor can observe the ulcer or tumor in the stomach and make the best treatment plan accordingly.

        The endoscope is a tube equipped with light. The endoscope can enter the human body through the natural passage of the human body, or through a small incision made by surgery.

        The first endoscope was made of hard tube, invented more than 100 years ago. Although they are gradually improved, they are still not widely used. Later, in the 1950s, the endoscope was made of flexible tubes, so it could be easily bent around the corners of the human body. In 1965, Harold Hopkins installed a cylindrical lens on the endoscope to make the field of vision clearer. Today's endoscopes usually have two glass fiber tubes, through which light enters the body. Doctors observe through the other tube or through a camera. Some endoscopes even have micro integrated circuit sensors to feed back the observed information to the computer Machine.

    Endoscope inspection pipeline

         An early endoscope made in 1870. It replaces the rubber hose with a hard tube. Some surgeries can be performed with an endoscope and a laser. The optical fiber of the endoscope can deliver a laser beam, cauterize vegetations or tumors, and block bleeding blood vessels.

        In 1795, bozzini of Germany entered from the natural cavity, creating the origin of endoscopy. In 1835, Antoine Jean desormeaux, the father of endoscope, used kerosene lamp as light source to observe the condition of bladder through the refraction of mirror. The first endoscope in the world was created by French doctor desomio in 1853. Endoscopy is a common medical device. It consists of a flexible part, a light source and a group of lenses. When the endoscope is introduced into the pre examined organ, the changes of the relevant parts can be directly observed.

         The first endoscopy was used for rectal examination. The doctor ed a hard tube into the patient's anus and observed the rectal lesions with the help of the light of a candle. The diagnostic data obtained by this method is limited. The patient is not only very painful, but also has a high risk of perforation due to the hardness of the instrument. Despite these shortcomings, endoscopy has continued to be applied and developed, and gradually designed a lot of different uses and different types of instruments.

        In 1855, the Spanish kahsa invented laryngoscope. German Hyman von heimozzi invented the eyeglass in 1861.

        In 1878, Edison invented the light bulb, especially after the emergence of the miniature light bulb, the endoscope had a great development, and the temporary arrangement of surgical endoscopy could also achieve a very accurate degree.

        In 1878, German urologist M. Nitz created cystoscope, which can be used to examine some lesions in the bladder.

        In 1897, German brother Killian conceived bronchoscopy. More than 20 years later, under the promotion of American Joan schwallier Jackson, bronchoscopy entered the practical stage. Soon, the bronchoscope was used in routine lung tests. In 1862, German smore created esophagoscope. In 1903, American Kelly created the rectum mirror, but it was not widely used until 1930. In 1913, Jacobs, a Swede, reformed pleuroscopy. In 1922, Schindler founded gastroscopy. In 1928, kalke, a German, founded the method of laparoscopy. In 1936, the American skafu carried out the experiment of ventriculoscopy. It was not until 1962 that the German Kool and Friedel founded the method of ventriculoscopy. From then on, a complete set of microscopy series was formed.


    Classification of endoscopes

        In terms of application, it can be divided into two categories: industrial endoscope and medical endoscope.

        The types of industrial endoscope can be divided into optical endoscope, optical fiber endoscope, electronic endoscope, CCD video endoscope, CMOS video endoscope and electric 360 ° endoscope. According to the types of endoscope light source, it can be divided into high frequency fluorescent lamp endoscope, optical fiber halogen lamp endoscope and led endoscope.

       On the classification of medical endoscope, according to its development

       And imaging structure classification: it can be roughly divided into three categories: rigid tube endoscopy, optical fiber (flexible tube) endoscopy and electronic endoscopy.

        There are many different kinds of endoscopes for medical examination, and their classification methods are different. Generally speaking, the following three classification methods are more common. In terms of marketing, the most commonly used category is whether the direction can be changed clinically, which can be divided into two types: rigid mirror and elastic soft mirror.

        According to the function of endoscope

        It is divided into single function mirror and multi-function mirror. The single function mirror refers to the observation mirror with no working channel but only optical system; the multi-function mirror refers to the observation mirror with at least one working channel in the same mirror body, which has multiple functions such as lighting, surgery, flushing and suction.

       According to the location of the endoscope

       According to the different parts of the endoscope, it can be divided into otorhinolaryngoscope, oral endoscopy, dental endoscopy, NeuroScope, urethrocystoscope, electrocision scope, laparoscope, arthroscopy, sinus endoscopy, laryngoscope, etc.

       According to whether the mirror body can change direction

       Clinically, according to whether the endoscope body can change its direction, it can be divided into two types: rigid endoscope and flexible flexible endoscope. Rigid endoscope is a prism optical system, the biggest advantage of which is clear imaging, multiple working channels and multiple viewing angles. Flexible endoscope is an optical fiber optical system. The most important feature of this optical fiber endoscope is that the lens can be manipulated by the operator to change the direction and expand the scope of application, but the imaging effect is not as good as that of the rigid endoscope.

        Clinical application of endoscopy 

    1. Examination of gastrointestinal diseases 

    (1) esophagus: chronic esophagitis, esophageal varices, hiatal hernia, esophageal leiomyoma, esophageal cancer and cardiac cancer, etc. 

    (2) Stomach and duodenum: chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, gastric benign tumor, gastric cancer, duodenal ulcer, duodenal tumor. 

    (3) Small intestine: small intestine tumor, smooth muscle tumor, sarcoma, polyp, lymphoma, inflammation, etc.

     (4) Large intestine: nonspecific ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, chronic colitis, colonic polyps, colorectal cancer, etc. 

    2、 Examination of pancreatic and biliary diseases: pancreatic cancer, cholangitis, cholangiocarcinoma, etc. 

    3、 Laparoscopy: liver diseases, biliary diseases, etc. 

    4、 Examination of respiratory diseases: lung cancer, bronchoscopic lung biopsy and brushing, ive bronchography, etc. 

    5、 Urinary tract examination: cystitis, bladder junction, bladder tumor, renal tuberculosis, renal calculus, renal tumor, congenital malformation of ureter, ureteral calculus, ureteral tumor, etc.