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    How to maintain the endoscope

         Endoscopy originated in 1795. Bozzini of Germany entered from the natural cavity, which created the origin of endoscopy. In 1835, Antoine Jean desormeaux, the father of endoscope, used kerosene lamp as light source to observe the condition of bladder through the refraction of mirror. The first endoscope in the world was created by French doctor desomio in 1853. Endoscopy is a common medical device. It consists of a flexible part, a light source and a group of lenses. When the endoscope is introduced into the pre examined organ, the changes of the relevant parts can be directly observed.

    How to maintain the endoscope

        Rigid tube endoscopy is the most convenient, direct and effective medical device for medical staff to observe the pathological tissue inside the human body. It has the advantages of high image definition, realistic color and easy operation. With the expansion of the scope of the use of rigid tube endoscopy, the frequency of the use of rigid tube endoscopy is higher and higher. Rigid tube endoscope is a delicate medical instrument, which is easy to cause damage. The following is an introduction on how to use, maintain and maintain the rigid tube endoscope, so as to help the medical staff better use the instrument and prolong the service life of the rigid tube endoscope.

    Basic structure of rigid tube endoscope

        In order to use the rigid tube endoscope correctly, we should understand its structure. At present, the products of hard tube endoscope manufacturers in the world are different in light path and appearance, but their basic structures are the same: they are composed of working tube, structure, eye mask and optical cable interface. The main part of the structure, the eye mask part and the optical cable interface part are not easy to be damaged except for severe collision. The most easily damaged part is the working mirror tube. Taking the 4 mm rigid tube endoscope as an example, the working tube is mainly composed of four parts: outer tube, endoscope tube, optical lens and optical fiber. The optical lens is placed in the endoscope tube to form an optical system, and the optical fiber is placed between the inner and outer mirror tubes to be responsible for lighting. The outer mirror tube is a stainless steel tube with a thickness of 0.1 mm and a diameter of 4 mm. Most of the optical lenses are glass columns with a diameter of 2.8 mm and a length of about 25 mm, which will crack, collapse or offset the optical axis when they are slightly bumped and squeezed. The common causes of blurred vision and blackened edges of endoscopes are such reasons. The optical fiber is made of very fine optical glass. A 4 mm endoscope needs to be installed with more than 1500 pieces. The broken fiber is caused by external force in the outer mirror tube, which affects the illumination. The connection of various mechanisms of rigid tube endoscope is mostly bonded with epoxy resin adhesive. The quality of adhesive and packaging technology also affect the service life of endoscope. Although the rigid tube endoscope is delicate, it will not be damaged as long as it can be used and maintained correctly.

    Maintenance of rigid tube endoscope

    1. Precautions in use the phenomenon of hard tube endoscope damaged in the process of operation is not much, although it will contact with human tissues such as muscle, mucosa, bone and so on, but these bumps are slight, will not cause damage to the endoscope, because it only plays the role of observation, not the stress point of other instruments. However, when using other instruments, especially forceps and scissors with large bite force, the front end of the tube should not extend into the occlusal area of the instrument, so as to avoid injuring the tube by mistake. When using this kind of instrument, sometimes doctors extend the endoscope very close to the tissue in the occlusal area in order to see clearly the tissue in the occlusal area. When the instrument is occluded, the endoscope does not return and the endoscope is injured by mistake. Such accidents can be avoided if the occlusal mouth of the instrument is within the scope of the endoscope.

    Some surgical endoscopes are used in the sheath tube. When changing other angle endoscopes or inserting and removing instruments, it should be noted that the action should be light, and the force should not be too strong. Especially in the process of inserting and removing the endoscope, when there is resistance, we should carefully find out the reason. If necessary, we should pull it out together with the sheath tube, and do not use brute force. When the endoscope is combined with laser vaporization, high-frequency electrotomy, microwave and other photoelectric technology for surgery, we should pay attention to the distance between the front end of the endoscope and the treatment point to ensure that the front end of the endoscope is not shocked or burned. When using these instruments for the first time, the chief surgeon should practice repeatedly, master the relationship between the object distance in the image of the endoscope and the actual object distance, and confirm the nearest distance between the front end of the endoscope and the treatment point, so as to apply it freely in the actual operation. At present, planer has been widely used in otolaryngology and orthopedics to remove the diseased tissue. If it cuts to the endoscope, the endoscope will be damaged. In this kind of operation, attention should be paid to adjusting the speed of washing and suction to ensure that the image of the endoscope is clear and not covered by blood at any time. The rotating part of the knife head should always be controlled within the observation range of the endoscope. When the operation range is large, the rotation of the knife head should be stopped first, then the endoscope should be moved, and then the knife head should be moved under the supervision of the endoscope, and the knife head should be turned on and planed after reaching the appropriate position. When you feel that the planer is working abnormally or the illumination is suddenly reduced, it is possible that the endoscope has been damaged and should be replaced in time to avoid greater losses. In general, there should be a set of spare endoscopes and key instruments for important operations, which can be easily replaced when problems are found; if the operation is forced by using the improper angle of the endoscope or the non matching instruments, it is easy to cause the damage of the endoscope.

    2. how to maintain the rigid tube endoscope hard tube endoscope should be kept in a special cabinet, placed in a special packing box, lined with soft sponge or polyurethane foam. All the endoscopes and surgical instruments should be stacked in order, and should not be overlapped. After the cover is covered, the internal endoscopes and instruments will not collide with each other during transportation. Because the tube of the endoscope is very thin, it will be bent and deformed by extrusion, collision, bending, landing and other conditions, resulting in the lens damage or optical axis offset, resulting in unclear image or unusable. Therefore, when taking out or putting in the rigid tube endoscope from the packing box, you should hold your hands flat, take it out or put it in gently, and do not lift a section to pull it out. When the endoscope is placed in a hard container such as a tray, it should be placed separately from other instruments and should not be unduly bumped to avoid collision with the endoscope. There should be desiccant in the packing box to keep it dry.

    Ordinary rigid tube endoscopes are not resistant to high temperature and high pressure. The main reason is that the sealing glue will deteriorate and deform at high temperature, and the endoscope will open the glue and enter water. Therefore, boiling and high-pressure steam and other high-temperature and high-pressure methods can not be used for disinfection. Most of the damages of rigid tube endoscopes are caused by careless maintenance, bumping, landing and other reasons. There are also some problems in the packaging adhesive, packaging technology and packaging structure of individual manufacturers, resulting in the phenomenon of water entering and glue opening of the endoscope, which can be repaired. Although rigid tube endoscope is a delicate medical device, it is not easy to have problems in normal clinical operation or observation. As long as the use of proper, careful maintenance, careful maintenance, doctors can rest assured that the use of hard tube endoscopy will also play a maximum benefit.